QUANTUM COMPUTING ON MACOS WITH QDK
A series of Quantum Computing hands-on tutorial with Q#
If you haven’t read the other two articles of mine on Q#, I strongly suggest you have a look at them: Setup Q# on macOS, Superposition, and Entanglement. Because they are related and provide the background to this article.
When talking about teleportation, you may mistakenly believe that matters can be teleported from all the Star Trek videos you watched, and this is not possible, at least for now. However, don’t be disappointed after you got this far by following my tutorials along the way, we can use the quantum algorithm to transmit information, and this is far more valuable and realistic for us to learn now and use it in our real-world applications.
If you have read my previous article about entanglement (here), you already know the entanglement is when two, or more, quantum particles cannot have their states described independently regardless of distance.
So both of the QuBits in the superposition will either contain the exact same or the opposition information (1 or 0). So the scenario could be parity:
- odd parity: two quantum particles have the opposite values
- Even parity: two quantum particles have the same values
Both odd and even parity are possible in entanglement.
Quantum communication is the transmission of information via secure means using quantum phenomena of teleportation. So if, for example, two people each take one of the entangled particle pairs (QuBits), then they travel to the opposite side of the solar system, one can still communicate by performing the operation, e.g. encoding the message, on his/her QuBit and the other QuBit will receive the exact same operation and get the message. What a wonderful world.
However, this is not that simple. The whole process mentioned in the previous paragraph is correct, but there are a few things that hinder the technology:
- Timing of measurement. How does the second person know when to measure the QuBit, it cannot be earlier than the message operation.
- Way of measurement. So far we are only using one way to measure the QuBit.
- Combination of states of the entangled Qubits. This is the most important caveat. When entangled and before measurement, the pairs of QuBits have four possible entanglement states, aka the Bell States. In order to decode the message, we need to know which one of the four states it’s in, otherwise, you will only have 1/4 chance to get it right.
Therefore, the important part of quantum communication is how to transmit the bell state that the measurement will be used. Since it’s not the state transmit, so it must be transmitted using the means that are below the speed of light. In the following figure, the pink one ( public channel ) is the classical way to transmit the bell state information.
Since there’s no way to teleporter information instantaneously, you may wonder what the teleportation can be used for? One application has been heavily researched on is Quantum Secure Communication. Teleportation can be used to provide secure global communication. The positive message can be transmitted through the classical channel without security concern, and the actual message is transmitted securely and instantaneously through the power of the quantum teleportation.
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Full code is here: https://gist.github.com/billchenxi/25f23a758bc9823f15ab44981596b001