Yunkai Sun,1,2,* Lei Zhao,1,2,* Zhihui Lan,1,2 Xi-Ze Jia,1,2 Shao-Wei Xue1,2
1Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Institute of Psychological Sciences and the Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, People’s Republic of China; 2Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Hangzhou 311121, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Shao-Wei Xue
Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, No. 2318, Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, People’s Republic of China
Purpose: In recent years, machine learning techniques have received increasing attention as a promising approach to differentiating patients from healthy subjects. Therefore, some resting-state functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (R-fMRI) studies have used interregional functional connections as discriminative features. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD-related spatially distributed discriminative features derived from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns using machine learning.
Patients and Methods: We measured the interregional functional connections of the R-fMRI data from 40 ADHD patients and 28 matched typically developing controls. Machine learning was used to discriminate ADHD patients from controls. Classification performance was assessed by permutation tests.
Results: The results from the model with the highest classification accuracy showed that 85.3% of participants were correctly identified using leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOV) with support vector machine (SVM). The majority of the most discriminative functional connections were located within or between the cerebellum, default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal regions. Approximately half of the most discriminative connections were associated with the cerebellum. The cerebellum, right superior orbitofrontal cortex, left olfactory cortex, left gyrus rectus, right superior temporal pole, right calcarine gyrus and bilateral inferior occipital cortex showed the highest discriminative power in classification. Regarding the brain–behaviour relationships, some functional connections between the cerebellum and DMN regions were significantly correlated with behavioural symptoms in ADHD (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: This study indicated that whole-brain resting-state functional connections might provide potential neuroimaging-based information for clinically assisting the diagnosis of ADHD.
Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, resting-state fMRI, R-fMRI, machine learning approach, support vector machine, SVM, leave-one-out cross-validation
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